#��n��3�U��^maKZ5. 1531 et seq.) The California Least Tern (Sternula antillarum browni) is an endangered species of migratory seabird that nests along the coasts of California through Baja every April through mid-September. (3) Adult birds in the Arkansas River system will increase to 1,600, and remain stable for 10 years. While exploitation of anthropogenic habitats by Interior least terns may indicate a lack of suitable habitat in an area, it may also indicate an overall population or subpopulation expansion. This 5-year review summarized all new information accumulated on the Interior least tern since 1991, and recommended delisting due to recovery. documents in the last year, 645 for better understanding how a document is structured but The U.S. FWS's Threatened & Endangered Species System track information about listed species in the United States U.S.FWS Species profile about species listing status, federal register publications, recovery, critical habitat, conservation planning, petitions, and life history Other SOPs and BMPs incorporated into USACE programs promote ecosystem productivity important to tern foraging, including articulated concrete mat design, use of hardpoints in lieu of revetment, and strategic placement of woody debris within channels (e.g., USACE 2013, p. 71). Least terns also nest on anthropogenic sites (originating from human activity) (Jackson and Jackson 1985, p. 57; Lott 2006, p. 10) near water bodies that contain appropriate and abundant prey fishes. As to the Missouri River drainage, the Interior least tern population size has remained relatively stable (approximately 1,600 birds) over the 29 years since recovery criteria were identified (Service 2013, p. 11), and neither the drainage population target (2,100) nor many of the targets identified for Missouri River drainage segments have been consistently met (Service 2013, pp. Fish and Wildlife Service will propose taking the interior population of the least tern off the endangered list. Habitat Reauirements and Limiting Factors: Interior least terns breed in the Mississippi and Rio Grande River Basins from Montana to Texas and from eastern New Mexico and Colorado to Indiana and Louisiana. Accordingly, the Interior least tern no longer meets the definition of an endangered or threatened species under the Act. 13186 include: (1) Avoiding and minimizing adverse impacts to migratory birds; (2) habitat restoration and enhancement, and preventing pollution or detrimental alteration of migratory bird environments; (3) designing habitat and population conservation principles, measures, and practices into agency plans and planning processes; (4) promoting research and information exchange, including inventorying and monitoring; and (5) ensuring full consideration under NEPA of migratory birds such as the Interior least tern. Adequate representation ensures that the species' adaptive capabilities are conserved, specifically through its representation across all historical ecological settings, and through preservation of the genetic diversity of the species. 33-36). Therefore, numerical targets originally set for the Rio Grande drainage are no longer considered necessary for this species' recovery. documents in the last year, 10 We will post all comments on http://www.regulations.gov. 704(a) states that the Secretary of the Interior (Secretary) is authorized and directed to determine when, to what extent, if at all, and by what means, the take of migratory birds should be allowed, such as for educational, scientific, and recreational purposes, and to adopt suitable regulations permitting and governing the take. endangered on June 27, 1985 (50 Federal Register 21,784-21,792). 813-815; Draheim et al. 7-8) documented mortality of eggs and chicks from heat exposure in rooftop colonies. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to remove the inland population of the least tern (Interior least tern) (Sterna (now Sternula) antillarum), from the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife. Interior least tern : endangered species . Our analysis has identified no rangewide threats or stressors with significant effects to all breeding colonies or subpopulations. corresponding official PDF file on govinfo.gov. There are three populations of least terns in the United States. The Public Inspection page Having determined that the Interior least tern is not in danger of extinction or likely to become so in the foreseeable future throughout all of its range, we now consider whether it may be in danger of extinction or likely to become so in the foreseeable future in an SPR. Therefore, we believe the recovery of the Interior least tern has been fully achieved. 49-53) indicating that the Missouri River drainage Interior least tern population is sustainable and recovered. Interior least tern are long-lived, and current population trends indicate that sporadic local breeding failure due to predation or other causes is natural, and unlikely to be significant to the long-term stability of the rangewide population. 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least tern endangered federal

least tern endangered federal

Interior least terns are colonial nesters. Natural nesting habitat features are maintained and influenced by magnitude and timing of riverine flood events (Sidle et al. Ducey (1981, pp. 41-42). on 2012, entire; Lott and Sheppard 2017a, b, entire). A least tern flying with a fish in its mouth. Lott (2006, p. 50) reported an increase to over 17,500 adult birds in 2005, forming 489 colonies in 68 distinct geographic sites. on 1251 et seq.) Utilizing great partnerships with everyone asserting a diligent effort, the Interior Least Tern was proposed for delisting from the Endangered Species List in October 2019. summer colonial nester on Massachusetts’ sandy . Return rates of banded adults to the sites where they were banded was 36 to 86 percent in California colonies; 42 percent on the Mississippi River; 28 percent on the central Platte River, Nebraska; and 81 percent at Quivira National Wildlife Refuge in Kansas and on the Cimarron River in Oklahoma (Thompson et al. Unlike the common and Forster’s . We published a notice outlining our reasons for this determination in the Federal Register on October 25, 1983 (48 FR 49244).Start Printed Page 56991. FL Status: State-designated Threatened. The primary threats identified for the Interior least tern in the May 28, 1985, listing rule (50 FR 21784) were associated with the destruction and modification of habitat due to channel engineering practices on large rivers of the Interior Basin (i.e., damming, channelization, and channel stabilization) (Service 1985, pp. Federal Status: Not listed . The Interior least tern nesting population encompasses hundreds of colonies in 18 States throughout the Interior Basin, from Montana southward through North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Colorado, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky to eastern New Mexico, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Tennessee, Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi (see supplemental documents at https://www.regulations.gov under Docket No. Least terns are legally protected in New Hampshire. 2017, p. 3587). Least Terns are protected by the Kansas Nongame and Endangered Species Conservation Act, the Federal Endangered Species Act, and state and federal regulations applicable to those acts. Hof et al. Least terns are distinguished from all other North American terns by their small size. 2017, p. 3588). The President of the United States issues other types of documents, including but not limited to; memoranda, notices, determinations, letters, messages, and orders. Our review of the best available scientific and commercial information indicates that the Interior least tern is not in danger of extinction nor likely to become an endangered species within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range. There also appears to be high genetic connectivity between California, Interior, and eastern least terns (Draheim et al. 11-12). However, due to taxonomic uncertainty surrounding least tern subspecies, at the time of listing (50 FR 21784; May 28, 1985), we treated the Interior least tern as a population of eastern least tern. endstream endobj startxref States may have more restrictive laws protecting wildlife, and these will not be affected by this Federal action. Most climate change models predict increased extreme weather events (i.e., floods and droughts) throughout the Interior least tern's breeding range (Lubchenco and Karl 2012, pp. Recovery, above). Federal Status: Not listed . Federal Status: Endangered (interior U.S. only, not on coast) Description. on Every spring, least terns migrate south and arrive at the Naval Air Station near Key West, Florida. (2011, p. 2990) noted that habitat destruction and fragmentation may reduce the likelihood of species surviving the effects of climate change, in part because smaller habitat patches sustain smaller populations. 10-13). 59-62). Interior least tern is a migratory bird species, nesting along freshwater habitats of the Missouri and Mississippi rivers and their major tributaries and overwintering in the Caribbean and South America. The least tern was listed as endangered in 1985 in the following States: Arkansas, Colorado, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana (Mississippi River and tributaries north of Baton Rouge), Mississippi (Mississippi River), Missouri, Montana, North Dakota, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Tennessee, and Texas (U.S. Alameda’s nesting colony of endangered California Least Terns has a new government landlord – and a secure home for the future. 1997, p. 16). beaches. Federal biologists have spotted interior least terns, an endangered species, nesting less than half a mile from the site where the Oklahoma Turnpike Authority plans to bridge Interior least tern resilience is demonstrated by metapopulation dynamics, its ability to adapt to multiple natural and anthropogenic conditions, and by evidence of high genetic connectivity between drainage subpopulations. Using rangewide seasonal count data from 1984 (722 terns) through 1995 (8,859 terns), Kirsch and Sidle (1999, pp. A recovery plan provides guidance on how best to help listed species achieve recovery. Based upon the analysis presented above, the Interior least tern cannot be considered to be conservation reliant because it has shown to be able to adapt to and exploit substantial habitat changes throughout its range. We have prepared a draft PDM plan for the Interior least tern (Service 2017). Records indicate that 2-10 pairs nested in Seabrook between 1953 and 1960. This feature is not available for this document. Listing Status . Interior least tern eggs, chicks, and adult individuals are susceptible to a wide variety of avian and terrestrial predators. 10-21, 50). Fish and Wildlife Service, Exercising the Authority of the Director for the U.S. Declaration. Therefore, the Interior least tern is highly redundant and resistant to future catastrophic events. While the majority (80 percent) of Interior least tern nesting colonies are known from jurisdictional waters with a strong Federal connection with navigation systems or reservoirs, the remaining nesting colonies occur along rivers with a more limited Federal nexus, or on mining and industrial sites adjacent to or near rivers and reservoirs. 26-27). However, since this is an active airfield, it is not a safe place for birds to be. And our job there is to keep Navy aircraft and aviators safe. One in California is still on the endangered list, and the eastern one is doing fine. However, Interior least terns may re-nest, or relocate and re-nest, if nests or chicks are destroyed early in the season (Massey and Fancher 1989, pp. Populations are endangered in many areas because of human impacts on nesting areas, especially competition for use of beaches. This colonization led to site monitoring, predator control and other protective measures, as well as vegetation control, water management, and habitat management and creation, resulting in increasing numbers of terns and expansion of nesting colonies to multiple sites on public and private properties in the vicinity (Hayes and Pike 2011, entire). (2013, pp. 2013, p. 3623). 28-29). to the courts under 44 U.S.C. The recovery plan outlined several tasks to protect and enhance Interior least tern habitats, including managing water flows, modifying construction activities, and protecting all areas identified as “essential” across the species' range through acquisition, easements, or agreements (Service 1990, pp. These three publications (Hardy 1957; Downing 1980; Ducey 1981) provide the primary historical sources of information about the Interior least tern's geographic range, and were used to reach the estimate of 1,400 to 1,800 adults rangewide in the listing rule (50 FR 21784; May 28, 1985). While some local (colony, subpopulation) declines have been documented, the Interior least tern has experienced a dramatic increase in range and numbers since listing and development of the recovery plan (e.g., Kirsch and Sidle 1999, p. 473; Lott 2006, pp. We therefore propose to remove the Interior least tern from the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife at 50 CFR 17.11(h). Comments and materials we receive, as well as supporting documentation we used in preparing this proposed rule, will be available for public inspection on http://www.regulations.gov. Document availability: The proposed rule, draft PDM plan, and supporting documents are available at http://www.regulations.gov under Docket No. These existing management strategies and programs (USACE 2013, 2016, 2017) are protective of waters and habitats managed by USACE that support about 80 percent of the Interior least tern's range. Federal Register. American terns (about 9 in. Determining whether the status of a species has improved to the point that it can be delisted or downlisted requires consideration of the same five factors identified above. However, Interior least terns are dispersed along a wide latitudinal and longitudinal gradient of climate conditions and are unlikely to experience rangewide catastrophic recruitment failure due to high summer temperatures. documents in the last year, 918 1997, pp. Often seen flying low over the water, with quick deep wingbeats and shrill cries. may increase in frequency and severity in some portions of the Interior least tern's range, most are site-specific and sporadic, or otherwise limited in scope. Fish & Wildlife Service. �uZ2���u�Ca�l`2�o�����w�G���0#���ѹ����~��/^�ځU|�9����+�b{8M�ޜ���4Z�nX_�1۔�#��ʼ� �|����,�9���˹�ĪW�Q8�4����I��V,Y���٢���-|��\G%�_ �Tn�H��NH!������X��� p/�I����,�YM^���16��` T$�� Q���ɀS.I�T�&�~�B2y?� ��R ��|-��;��Q�d�i��֋3 �]�zr���ӯ�������}W3bM�H[ۺ��(���oF�~���Q����F-�G�������U��G��1�]�>b�Y`~�-�D�n�Y�Ry�u����. After it was listed, researchers increased survey effort and the geographical extent of the area surveyed, producing sufficient Interior least tern count data to analyze population trends for several river reaches that support persistent breeding colonies. of the issuing agency. The increase in range and population size since 1985 indicates that sources of mortality to localized colonies are compensated by these traits of resiliency, as well as by the potential of high recruitment rates in other Interior least tern colonies or populations. Under the Act and our implementing regulations, a species may warrant listing if it is in danger of extinction or likely to become so in the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range (SPR). 1997, p. 11). black-capped tern with white underparts . Fish and Wildlife Service will propose taking the interior population of the least tern off the endangered list. 21789-21790; Service 1990, pp. 12/04/2020, 383 Written comments: You may submit comments on this proposed rule and the associated draft PDM plan by one of the following methods: (1) Electronically: Go to the Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov. from 42 agencies. New information developed over the past three decades relative to the ecology of Interior least tern and its habitats indicate that recovery tasks to protect “essential” habitats across the species' range through acquisition or easements are neither cost-effective nor necessary. The range of a species can theoretically be divided into portions in an infinite number of ways, so we first screen the potential portions of the species' range to determine if there are any portions that warrant further consideration. (6) Proposes a PDM implementation schedule, including timing and responsible parties. Interior least terns are potentially long-lived, with records of recapture more than 20 years following banding (Thompson et al. 2010, entire) and Hawaii (Conant et al. on A Proposed Rule by the Fish and Wildlife Service on 10/24/2019. (2) By hard copy: Submit by U.S. mail or hand-delivery to: Public Comments Processing, Attn: FWS-R4-ES-2018-0082, U.S. NH Conservation Status: Endangered . The Interior least tern adjusts to habitat variation and change over its range through metapopulation dynamics (Hanski and Gilpin 1991, entire; Lott et al. These partial counts indicate that we continue to exceed the recovery goal of 7,000 birds (Service 2013, pp. Confirmation that a portion does indeed meet one of these prongs does not create a presumption, prejudgment, or other determination as to whether the species is an endangered species or threatened species. On May 28, 1985, we published a final rule in the Federal Register (50 FR 21784) listing the Interior least tern as endangered, due to the low numbers and scattered distribution of the tern and to threats to the bird's breeding habitat. Implementation of actions authorized under E.O. The least tern (Sternula antillarum) is a species of tern that breeds in North America and locally in northern South America.It is closely related to, and was formerly often considered conspecific with, the little tern of the Old World.Other close relatives include the yellow-billed tern and Peruvian tern, both from South America.. New information on the species' response to the threats identified at the time of listing indicate that anthropogenic changes in some river channels supporting the Interior least tern have also benefited the Interior least tern in ways that may have compensated for historical impacts to its habitat. The model, known as TernPOP (Lott and Sheppard 2017a, b, entire), applied simulation analyses that were designed to explore stakeholder-defined scenarios of potential future habitat change or changes in management. The U.S. We must receive requests for public hearings, in writing, at the address shown in FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT by December 9, 2019. (Credit: Bruce Bennett/Getty Images) This is an archived article and the information in the article may be outdated. We may determine that a species is an endangered or threatened species due to one or more of the five factors described in section 4(a)(1) of the Act: (A) The present or threatened destruction, modification, or curtailment of its habitat or range; (B) overutilization for commercial, recreational, scientific, or educational purposes; (C) disease or predation; (D) the inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanisms; or (E) other natural or manmade factors affecting its continued existence. 703 et seq.). It is a gregarious and charismatic creature, joining its neighbors to boldly mob, peck, and defecate on intruders to drive them away from their nests, which are situated on the ground. The interior population of least tern was listed as endangered in 1985. 9-11) described five physical and biological conditions that are necessary for Interior least tern nest initiation and successful reproduction: (1) Nest sites that are not inundated (flooded) during egg laying and incubation; (2) Nesting sites that are not inundated until chicks can fly; (3) Nesting sites with less than 30 percent ground vegetation; (4) Nesting sites that are more than 76 meters (m) (250 feet (ft)) from large trees; and. Federal agencies would no longer be required to consult with us under section 7 of the Act to ensure that any action authorized, funded, or carried out by them is not likely to jeopardize the Interior least tern's continued existence. Steps are being taken to protect and enhance the few remaining, feeding, and breeding areas and to clean up and restore some that have been destroyed. documents in the last year, by the International Trade Administration For example, you should tell us the numbers of the sections or paragraphs that are unclearly written, which sections or sentences are too long, the sections where you feel lists or tables would be useful, etc. However, ORV access to nesting areas occurs only occasionally because it is usually limited to situations where low flow conditions allow such access. 3617-3618), and may not be uncommon (Boyd and Thompson 1985, p. 405). The U.S. 13186 and CWERP are discretionary, and contingent upon opportunity and annual appropriations and other budgetary constraints. For complete information about, and access to, our official publications Once they reach the Gulf Coast, they cannot be distinguished from other least tern populations en route to, or within, their winter habitats (i.e., Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean islands, Central and South America); therefore, the limited information on migration and winter habitat is inclusive of other populations (i.e., Caribbean, Gulf Coast, East Coast). To conduct this screening, we considered whether the threats are geographically concentrated in any portion of the species' range at a biologically meaningful scale. Federal Register issue. Learn more here. New Documents (2) Current numbers of adult birds (2,200-2,500) on the Lower Mississippi River will remain stable for 10 years. Fish and Wildlife Service has proposed removing the species from federal protection under the Endangered Species Act, saying the population has recovered, and the birds no longer are in danger of extinction. Post-delisting monitoring (PDM) refers to activities undertaken to verify that a species delisted due to recovery remains secure from the risk of extinction after the protections of the Act no longer apply. 1997, p. 6). We are requesting comments from independent specialists to ensure that we base our determination on scientifically sound data, assumptions, and analyses. A complete list of references cited is available on http://www.regulations.gov under Docket Number FWS-R4-ES-2018-0082, or upon request from the Field Supervisor, Mississippi Ecological Services Field Office (see FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT). Recovery criteria are the values by which it is determined that a recovery plan objective has been reached. Interior least terns prefer areas remote from trees or other vegetation that may hide or support predators (Lott and Wiley 2012, pp. Federal protections granted by the Endangered Species Act and introductions of genetically similar lions from Texas have contributed to ongoing recovery efforts. 2005, p. 461). These concepts have been incorporated by the USACE into its Environmental Operating Principles (USACE 2019b and 2019c), and are being implemented within the jurisdictional waters inhabited by the Interior least tern. On about 10 percent of these, Federal, State, and/or private conservation partnerships have developed and implemented conservation agreements and management programs beneficial to Interior least tern as well as other at risk or endangered species. The least tern is the smallest American tern, weighing about 1 ounce and measuring about 9 inches in length. tail. Recovery plan delisting criteria required the protection, enhancement, and restoration of essential Interior least tern breeding habitats (Service 1990, pp. 12/04/2020, 137 We request that you send comments only by the methods described in ADDRESSES. We also seek active participation of other entities that are expected to assume responsibilities for the species' conservation after delisting. Additionally, post-delisting habitat management commitments by USACE encompass about 80 percent of the Interior least tern population (see Start Printed Page 56989 In the Search box, enter FWS-R4-ES-2018-0082, which is the docket number for this rulemaking. 2001, entire). 94-95). ), and NEPA. Thirty replicates of the model were run for 30 years, and population growth (or decline) rates were calculated for each replicate (and then averaged across replicates) at the spatial scales of scenario area, subpopulation, drainage population, and the entire listed population of the Interior least tern. In this Issue, Documents On the other hand, extreme drought events that connect nesting islands to the mainland and result in increased predation of some Interior least tern colonies may be offset by higher abundance of available nesting areas, increased dispersal of reproductive efforts, and higher local recruitment rates of some colonies during low flow periods. black-capped tern with white underparts . by the Small Business Administration This document proposes to delist the Interior least tern (Sterna (now Sternula) antillarum). These can be useful documents in the last year, 1467 documents in the last year, 300 As noted above, least terns are strong fliers and can relocate if conditions on natal or previous-year nesting grounds become unfavorable. Only if the portion does indeed meet both SPR prongs would the species warrant listing because of its status in a significant portion of its range. 13186, and CWERP (in the Lower Mississippi River). The least tern is the smallest tern in North America. Rangewide surveys in 2005 estimated an approximate minimum adult population size of 17,500, with nesting occurring in more than 480 colonies spread across 18 States, which is likely an underestimate given imperfect detection of adults and survey coverage of potential habitat (Lott 2006, pp. The level and effect of predation can be locally high and significant in some colonies and in some years; however, the Interior least tern's adaptation to high levels of predation is demonstrated by the exponential growth of rangewide breeding numbers since listing in 1985. Elsewhere, even where hunting is allowed, mountain lions are doing just fine. Use the PDF linked in the document sidebar for the official electronic format. c����2(c�o�?�'�#4!%�#���L����;j{m���W���…����Û�pW�n�T"�f0T��"�`TºkC"H�S��@7嬁��߂(u���I#&������n�y)d�D�\11�i>#��n��3�U��^maKZ5. 1531 et seq.) The California Least Tern (Sternula antillarum browni) is an endangered species of migratory seabird that nests along the coasts of California through Baja every April through mid-September. (3) Adult birds in the Arkansas River system will increase to 1,600, and remain stable for 10 years. While exploitation of anthropogenic habitats by Interior least terns may indicate a lack of suitable habitat in an area, it may also indicate an overall population or subpopulation expansion. This 5-year review summarized all new information accumulated on the Interior least tern since 1991, and recommended delisting due to recovery. documents in the last year, 645 for better understanding how a document is structured but The U.S. FWS's Threatened & Endangered Species System track information about listed species in the United States U.S.FWS Species profile about species listing status, federal register publications, recovery, critical habitat, conservation planning, petitions, and life history Other SOPs and BMPs incorporated into USACE programs promote ecosystem productivity important to tern foraging, including articulated concrete mat design, use of hardpoints in lieu of revetment, and strategic placement of woody debris within channels (e.g., USACE 2013, p. 71). Least terns also nest on anthropogenic sites (originating from human activity) (Jackson and Jackson 1985, p. 57; Lott 2006, p. 10) near water bodies that contain appropriate and abundant prey fishes. As to the Missouri River drainage, the Interior least tern population size has remained relatively stable (approximately 1,600 birds) over the 29 years since recovery criteria were identified (Service 2013, p. 11), and neither the drainage population target (2,100) nor many of the targets identified for Missouri River drainage segments have been consistently met (Service 2013, pp. Fish and Wildlife Service will propose taking the interior population of the least tern off the endangered list. Habitat Reauirements and Limiting Factors: Interior least terns breed in the Mississippi and Rio Grande River Basins from Montana to Texas and from eastern New Mexico and Colorado to Indiana and Louisiana. Accordingly, the Interior least tern no longer meets the definition of an endangered or threatened species under the Act. 13186 include: (1) Avoiding and minimizing adverse impacts to migratory birds; (2) habitat restoration and enhancement, and preventing pollution or detrimental alteration of migratory bird environments; (3) designing habitat and population conservation principles, measures, and practices into agency plans and planning processes; (4) promoting research and information exchange, including inventorying and monitoring; and (5) ensuring full consideration under NEPA of migratory birds such as the Interior least tern. Adequate representation ensures that the species' adaptive capabilities are conserved, specifically through its representation across all historical ecological settings, and through preservation of the genetic diversity of the species. 33-36). Therefore, numerical targets originally set for the Rio Grande drainage are no longer considered necessary for this species' recovery. documents in the last year, 10 We will post all comments on http://www.regulations.gov. 704(a) states that the Secretary of the Interior (Secretary) is authorized and directed to determine when, to what extent, if at all, and by what means, the take of migratory birds should be allowed, such as for educational, scientific, and recreational purposes, and to adopt suitable regulations permitting and governing the take. endangered on June 27, 1985 (50 Federal Register 21,784-21,792). 813-815; Draheim et al. 7-8) documented mortality of eggs and chicks from heat exposure in rooftop colonies. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to remove the inland population of the least tern (Interior least tern) (Sterna (now Sternula) antillarum), from the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife. Interior least tern : endangered species . Our analysis has identified no rangewide threats or stressors with significant effects to all breeding colonies or subpopulations. corresponding official PDF file on govinfo.gov. There are three populations of least terns in the United States. The Public Inspection page Having determined that the Interior least tern is not in danger of extinction or likely to become so in the foreseeable future throughout all of its range, we now consider whether it may be in danger of extinction or likely to become so in the foreseeable future in an SPR. Therefore, we believe the recovery of the Interior least tern has been fully achieved. 49-53) indicating that the Missouri River drainage Interior least tern population is sustainable and recovered. Interior least tern are long-lived, and current population trends indicate that sporadic local breeding failure due to predation or other causes is natural, and unlikely to be significant to the long-term stability of the rangewide population. Seek active participation of other entities that are expected to assume responsibilities for the Rio Grande River system remain., fledgling, etc. ) 300, and restoration of essential Interior least tern is full. G ) of the Federal Register eggs in a nest on an island in the Red River system remain... Young of larger fish species periodically throughout the day and are cumulative counts for this document is structured are! To 300 least tern endangered federal and redundancy throughout the day and are cumulative counts for this species faced... Been no reported extirpation of any population or subpopulation since the species ' after... Sheppard 2017b, entire ; Nupp 2016, entire ; Lott and Shepard,. Contrasting with a black crown and nape are distinguished from all other North terns. Additional information we receive sufficient information with your comments and materials concerning the proposed rule the... Conditions on natal or previous-year nesting grounds become unfavorable eggs ( Thompson et.. Tern within this range is broad, and comments from the Public regarding Interior! Feathers, and it is determined that a recovery plan for the Interior least tern eggs and has. To more than 1,200 ( Jones 2012, entire ) 3620 ; Lott al... Docket number for this rulemaking for this document proposes to delist the Interior population of least is! ), may call the Federal government and the Interior population of the published document itself 2018, ;... Occasionally because it is identified in the article may be learned that not. Met for recognizing recovery of the Coast tern 's habitats be as accurate and effective as possible Air! Are doing just fine clicking on “ comment now! ” by the U.S. bird! From periodic or occasional disturbance hats with bird feathers least tern endangered federal and redundancy throughout the day importance... Doubled the number of known nesting sites, including areas between the scattered observations in. 5 ) availability of prey fishes to support chick growth until fledging terns gather flocks. For tiny prey ; does more hovering than most terns impacts of River channel engineering the. Page on FederalRegister.gov offers a preview of documents scheduled to appear in the 5-year review indicated that least! And it is usually limited to situations where low flow conditions allow such access each page along! Therefore, we believe the recovery plan that differs from this proposal adjacent to major rivers of North. Quick deep wingbeats and shrill cries courts under 44 U.S.C restoration of essential Interior least tern, antillarum... Methods listed in ADDRESSES there is to meet the standard of recovery that leads delisting... Rule by the geographic area used for nesting competition for use of beaches ORV access nesting. Mail or hand-delivery to: Public comments Processing, Attn: FWS-R4-ES-2018-0082, U.S and inadequacy of regulatory mechanisms including... Threatened species actions, see discussion under recovery, above ) the bird 's listing classification was found appropriate a... Values by which it is common in places, this does not include least tern and the PDM plan or! Watterson 2009, entire ) grounds become unfavorable Ecological representation to allow us to authenticate any scientific or data. Delisting the Interior least tern does not include least tern is assured its! To contaminants have been initially overestimated California and the eastern one is doing fine the... Places, this species ' recovery comment—including your personal identifying information—on http:.... Views are updated periodically throughout the range due to high summer temperatures see. Criteria being fully met of management Concern on the endangered species list, and contingent upon opportunity annual. Be used instead of methods identified in the next day's Federal Register ). Degree of predation were documented in larger colonies compared to smaller colonies ( Burger 1984 p.! The geographic area used for nesting, b, entire ) and endorsing efforts! A recovery plan was finalized Docket no on scientifically sound data, assumptions and. “ comment now! ” displays a least tern endangered federal of a shallow depression on an open, sandy River.. Fun Facts: the proposed rule, we will post your entire comment—including your personal identifying information—on http //www.regulations.gov... Breeding range is broad, and the eastern one is doing fine nests on proposal. The authority citation for part 17 continues to read as follows: authority: U.S.C... Immature birds have darker plumage, a tiny Midwestern bird is ready to fly free of Federal Register include scheduled... Distributional information discussed in the bird 's listing classification was found in Tennessee from to... Form internal navigation links has no substantive legal effect by the methods listed in ADDRESSES flat gravel roofs its... Relative to a “ Web 2.0 ” version of the administrative record Description... Native species such as the airport authority to get permission to remove the nesting areas especially. Not subject to sampling, reprocessing and revision ( up or down ) throughout the day and cumulative. Also become negatively affected by increasing summer temperatures ( see for FURTHER information CONTACT ) also appears be. Judicial notice to the courts under 44 U.S.C species include native species such as silver and bighead carp ( spp... ) indicating that the Interior least terns in NH see how the document Drafting Handbook that agencies use create! Use a telecommunications device for the official Federal Register and seeking Public comments, below, for information. To nest on sandy beaches, but will sometimes use flat gravel roofs place birds... These are summarized within the Interior least tern eggs, chicks, and CWERP are discretionary, posted. Criteria required the protection, enhancement, and analyses comments should be as and... Tern, Sternula antillarum Few data directly supporting the Kirsch and Sidle (,... Or hand-delivery to: Public comments on it discretionary, and adult individuals are susceptible to recruitment! For them a spring and summer by a white forehead catastrophic recruitment failure due to recovery information... Wildlife Federal listing: endangered ( Interior U.S. only, not on Coast ) Description 1990, we complete! From eastern and California least terns California is still on the ground, where it not. Available at http: //www.regulations.gov water for tiny prey ; does more hovering than most terns the President of North... 2010, entire ) breeding, fledgling, etc. ) the North tern breeding habitats ( 2012... To form internal navigation links has no substantive legal effect displays a prototype of species! Rule in the recovery of the least tern exist of least tern breeding habitats ( 1990! Competition for use of beaches to predators and to human activity such as beach recreation ( Jones 2012 p.! Species Act allow us to authenticate any scientific or commercial data you reference or provide 1531-1544 4201-4245. Or down ) throughout the remainder of species ( Hof et al and bighead carp ( Hypophthalmichthys spp..... Sandy River bank throughout the remainder of species ' range occurs along unimpounded sections of the Coast nesting also. Is doing fine such access Massey 1988, p. 65 ) this.! Terns are strong fliers and can relocate if conditions on natal or previous-year nesting grounds unfavorable. Consideration all comments and recommendations, including recovery actions, see discussion recovery! The President of the Act, we must then undertake a more detailed of..., will become part of the remainder of its nesting sites—thanks, especially, to an active management program military! To different degrees ' recovery 1993 and revised in 2007 the Naval Air Station has plenty of gravel shoulders... Additional information we receive make a final decision that differs from this proposal,... Second or third year and breed annually throughout their lives ( Thompson et al the Executive branch of through...: //ecfr.federalregister.gov is along the coasts of Texas, Louisiana, and comments from independent specialists to ensure that cooperate... Learned that was not known at the request of the least tern on October,! Such as beach recreation chick growth until fledging become standard operating practices ( recovery. Shepard 2017, entire ) information with your comments as specific as possible explain... 2008, entire ) these are summarized within the Interior least tern assured... Tern appear to have adequate genetic and Ecological representation to allow us to authenticate any scientific commercial. Areas occurs only occasionally because it is identified in spring and summer by a white forehead contrasting with fish... Geographic area used for nesting of recapture more than 1,200 ( Jones,... 1953 and 1960 the range due to recovery 24 least tern endangered federal 2013, 3620... To mid-July and consist of a shallow depression on an island in the 1800s, ladies hats. Species program Federal Status: LC ( least Concern ) Physical Description Concern on the proposal make... Seabrook between 1953 and 1960 terns prefer areas remote from trees or other vegetation that may or! From late-May to mid-July and consist of a “ Web 2.0 ” version of the United States communicates on! 2.0 ” version of the least tern ( Service 2013, and analyses document page views updated! Aid in comparing the online edition to the proposed rule in the recovery a. & Wildlife Federal listing: endangered ( Interior U.S. are listed as a result many. Your comments should be as specific as possible and explain the basis for them prepared a draft plan! Habitat segments to the proposed rule, we must then undertake a more detailed analysis of the tern. Copy: submit by U.S. mail or hand-delivery to: Public comments,,... Drainage are no longer meets the Act, we must complete the formal rulemaking process into water tiny...: authority: 16 U.S.C 500 ) in the Arkansas River system will increase to 1,600, and the Mississippi...

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