It became more widely utilized after Rand McNally introduced its wax engraving process in 1872. (See entry 378.) Lithograph. Color lithography to distinguish regions and administrative divisions on maps was introduced as early as the 1850's. With these CDs, you will be able to trace the old railroads that made this country great in the 19th century and learn many interesting facts about the various railroad lines both from the provided descriptions and the detailed annotations found on many of the maps. It is also interesting to note that in the report the commissioners believed "that horse power will be most expedient for application to the uses of this road." Most railroad histories cover the 19th century (of course, a history of the Penn Central would be an exception :-). Others resemble contemporary strip road maps and show only a ribbon of land immediately adjacent to a specific railroad right-of-way. RailMapOnline.com provides interactive maps of past & present railways. At the beginning of the century, U.S. citizens and immigrants to the country traveled primarily by horseback or on the rivers. Also in 1838, Irish railroads were depicted by Henry Drury Harness, an early statistical cartographer.6, Planning, surveying and mapping, and construction of railroads in America progressed rapidly and haphazardly, without direction or supervision from the states that granted charters to construct such works. 5 Thurman W. Van Metre Transportation in the United States (Brooklyn: Foundation Press, 1950), p. 31. So much of the history of the Victorian Railways is best expressed geographically, but producing maps for various dates by photocopying and liquid paper was not successful. A beautifully executed commercial guide map which drew upon the Pacific railroad surveys is entitled "Map of the United States West of the Mississippi Showing the Routes to Pike's Peak, Overland Mail Route to California and Pacific Rail Road Surveys." Early railroad surveys and construction were financed by private investors. Add tags Comment Rate. A printed title cartouche accompanied by a list of counties for each of the states, by McEwen Map Company of Chicago, is pasted on the maps. (Compare entries 443 and 444.) A major accomplishment of this firm was publication in 1876 of their "New Railroad and County Map of the United States and Canada. In his 1829 Memoir on the Recent Surveys, Observations and Internal Improvements in the United States Tanner lists "Brief Notices" on "Rail Roads Never Before Delineated." The "Map of Franklin County, Arkansas; Showing the Land Grant of the Little Rock & Fort Smith Railway," published in 1893, shows how much land was still owned by one railroad in one county some 20 years after the era of land grants. Consequently the Library's collections also include some foreign- language maps aimed at both the immigrant already on the eastern coast and the prospective one in Europe (see entries 177a and 330) and may have led to the distortion of railroad maps to emphasize one state, area, or line to the advantage of the advertiser. Our United States and Canada Atlas is made from the same projection.32, This statement, however, does not seem applicable to the large and detailed map of 1876 which indicates drainage, relief by hachures, international, state and county boundaries, cities and towns, railroad stations, canals, roads, trails, a comprehensive railroad network, and railroads under construction. (See entry 147a.) The earliest printed map in the collections, based on government surveys conducted for a state owned railroad, is "Map of the Country Embracing the Various Routes Surveyed for the Western & Atlantic Rail Road of Georgia, 1837." Contains 623 maps chosen from more than 3,000 railroad maps and about 2,000 regional, state, and county maps, and other maps which show "internal improvements" of the past century. To satisfy Americans' keen interest in the routes of railroads, cartographers have shown rail lines on maps since the first tracks were laid in the United States. The transfer process eliminated most of the laborious procedure of drawing on stone in reverse. Railroad map production continued at a strong pace into the early 20th century, until expansion of the network was completed. ; date from end of article. The NY&N was a small operation, originally conceived in 1869 as the New York & Boston. Take a virtual tour of the map center.. From His Stone Sawmill and Quarries ... to His Landing on Ridley Creek," however, illustrates Robert P. Robins' A Short Account of the First Permanent Tramway in America (Philadelphia, 1886).2 The first of the commercial "tramroads" was surveyed and constructed in 1826 at Quincy, Mass., by Gridley Bryant, with the machinery for it developed by Solomon Willard. It is not generally known that our large railroad and county map, which is 58 x 100 inches, is the second original projection of a United States map ever made. French and J.F. The surveys were made under the direction of Lt. Col. Stephen H. Long, chief engineer, who 10 years earlier had surveyed the routes for the Baltimore and Ohio,21 (See entry 332.) The Railroad Act of 1862 put government support behind the transcontinental railroad and helped create the Union Pacific Railroad (see entry 588), which subsequently joined with the Central Pacific at Promontory, Utah, on May 10, 1869, and signaled the linking of the continent. As late as 1848 Peter S. Duval of Philadelphia engraved map plates of Virginia for Claudius Crozet, principal engineer to the Commonwealth. Izard in 1832. The building of the main railway system in France started after 1842 and was rather inefficient for several decades. These are listed in Philip Lee Phillips' A List of Maps of America in the Library of Congress (Washington, Govt. It was through Judah's efforts and the support of Abraham Lincoln, who saw military benefits in the line's as well as the bonding of the Pacific coast to the Union, that the Pacific railroad finally became a reality. This map, annotated to show geological structures along the route of the railroad, is an example of the general survey maps prepared to illustrate progress reports of individual railroads, as well as of specific right-of-way surveys. (San Franscisco: The Institute of Historical Cartography, 1957-63),2:187. This page shows the complete map. As early as 1868 most western railroads established profitable land departments and bureaus of immigration, with offices in Europe, to sell land and promote foreign settlement in the western United States. (See entry 215.). Railroad maps of the United States : a selective annotated bibliography of original 19th-century maps in the Geography and Map Division of the Library of Congress by Library of Congress. By the time the South Eastern Railway opened as far as Dover, in 1844, 2210 miles of line had been opened, making travel around the country faster, more comfortable and less expensive. These readily available cartographic reference tools contributed in large measure to the geographical knowledge of the country and assured their survival in map collections. Late 19th- and Early 20th … Published in 1838 were C.F. Large sheet 25" x 17 1/2" with a map inside the border of 16" x 22". Other map pages: [ Locations | Map themes & related | Cartographers] During the nineteenth century, folding travel maps were published for the use of wagon drivers, railroad passengers, and steamboat voyageurs in a new and rapidly developing country. ), Publication of 19th-century American railroad maps paralleled similar developments in Europe. New York: G.W. This map, like the first edition, lists 45 major surveys and mapping reports from the time of Lewis and Clark to the General Land Office Surveys of the late 1850's. . This aid took two forms: loans and land grants. Theodore D. Judah, the engineer of the Sacramento Valley Railroad (see entry 552), became obsessed with the desire to build a transcontinental railroad. Pictorial representations, in caricature, which suggest post office names illustrate the maps. (See entry 174.) Scarce George Cram Railroad large 19th century double page continuous seam "tipped-in" map of Louisiana. Contact. He stated that "the work of compilation . A reproduction, entitled "Draft Exhibiting. Capt. Scale ca. Dogwood Post Office, for example, is identified by a picture of a dog, Elizabeth by a queen, Starlight by a star, and Worth by a dollar sign. Some firms, like G.W. Failure of Congress to act on his proposal was mainly due to the vigorous opposition of Senator Thomas Hart Benton of Missouri, who favored a western route originating at St. Louis. In … At the latter town the line had a junction with the Virginia Central Railroad, and Warrenton was linked by a branch line in 1853. Although the results were excellent, this was a slow and costly process which could not keep pace with the demand for railroad maps. The maps, which are in the custody of the Geography and Map Division, vary widely in area, content, and scale. The maps of the vicinity of Boston, Baltimore and Washington, and the Engraving on opposite page, are given in this number of the Guide, as specimens of Engraving for ordinary printing. The routes on the maps generally follow the survey lines as reported by Chief Engineer Thomas C. Atkinson at the fifth annual meeting of the stockholders, held in Alexandria, October 24, 1854. This line later merged with the Southern Pacific. . 12 George Woolworth Colton, A Genealogical Record of the Descendants of Quartermaster George Colton (Philadephia: Printed for private circulation by John Milton Colton, 1912), p. 273. Railroad Maps of the United States: A Selective Annotated Bibliography of Original 19th-century Maps in the Geography and Map Division of the Library of Congress. Land-grant maps, which were published for many years, were frequently used by land speculators to advertise railroad lands for sale to the public. At the beginning of the century, U.S. citizens and immigrants to the country traveled primarily by horseback or on the rivers. This was an ingenious method of making a mold from which a printing plate was cast. A collection of mainly 19th century maps of almost 150 cities, towns, and villages in the Republic of Ireland. In the borders of the map are picturesque scenes of the country traversed by the railroad, as well as a list of railroad stations in the Middle West. In the Library's collections are maps from the earliest era of railroad mapmaking, Henry Schenck Tanner's "Map of the Canals & Rail Roads of the United States," dated 1830, is an early general map, depicting "working lines" on the eastern seaboard and in Kentucky, Alabama, and Louisiana. It was to utilize horsepower to haul granite, needed for building the Bunker Hill Monument,3 from the quarries at Quincy, four miles to the wharf on the Neponset River. An alternate route to the south of the pass joined the main line at the Salmon River and continued to Puget Sound. 15 (1928):879. Railroads played a significant role in the overall development of Colorado. In the Middle West interest in building railroads was strong, and many lines were mapped and subsequently constructed to connect the leading centers of commerce. This large map, at the scale of 1:316,800 and approximately 2 1/2 x 4 feet in size, is hand colored on tracing linen. A map of the Leiper Railroad in Pennsylvania, dated October 1, 1809, and signed by the surveyor John Tomson, may be the first railroad survey in America. Antique 19th century clickable history map of the European Railroads by A. T. Chartier. ... By the end of the 19th century, it was 75 per cent. By the end of the century the same journey took about 24 hours by coach. These surveys showed that a railroad could follow any one of the five routes and that the 32d parallel route was the least expensive. to the Pacific coast, a distance of about 2,000 miles. Stanford University history Professor James Campbell presented a talk titled,"The Celestial Railroad Revisited: The Railroad in 19th Century American History and Culture." 19 Fairfax Harrison, Landmarks of Old Prince William; A Study of Origins in Northern Virginia (Richmond, Va.: Old Dominion Press, 1924). A note on the map states: "The entire map is printed from electrotype plates, sections of which can be used for special railroad maps, publishers premium maps, maps to accompany reports, pamphlets . During the Middle Ages most heavy or bulky items were carried by water wherever possible. This practice of manipulating scale, area, and paths of railroads became common practice in advertising maps of the 1870's and early 1880's (see entry 378) and in railroad timetables. Al Westerfield provides reprints of the ORER (Official Railway Equipment Register). The railroads sold the land to settlers for cash. The line could not generate sufficient levels of passengers and freight to survive by itself. Before 1840 most surveys were made for short passenger lines which proved to be financially unprofitable. The maps were not published but were rented, on a fee basis, to practicing or prospective postal workers. must necessarily be frequently repeated; and to aid the future compiler, I have prepared the accompanying memoir upon the different maps and books used, and upon the manner in which their discrepancies have been resolved." J.D. 29 1/2 x 36 1/4. 2Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 4 (1880): 422, and 11 (1887):243. (See entry 567.) Within two years after William and John Pendleton established the first important lithographic printing house in Boston in 1825, their firm was printing railroad surveys and reports for the earliest New England railroad companies.9, Even after lithographic printing in map production became common, engraving continued in use for many years for finer and more limited works. Several interesting manuscript maps of the midwestern states that portray routes of the "Railway Mail Service" and locate working post offices are based on the official "Post Route Maps" and the outsized map mentioned above. What do the colours mean? Canals and inland waterways - Canals and inland waterways - United States: In the United States, canal building began slowly; only 100 miles of canals had been built at the beginning of the 19th century; but before the end of the century more than 4,000 miles were open to navigation. After a while, crude roads were built and then canals. & Ohio Rail Road by Order of the Board of Engineers." Within the next 20 years railroads were playing a dominant role in the transportation system of the country. The maps presented here are a selection from the Geography and Map Division holdings, based on the popular cartobibliography, Railroad Maps of the United States: A Selective Annotated Bibliography of Original 19th-century Maps in the Geography and Map Division of the Library of Congress, compiled by Andrew M. Modelski (Washington: Library of Congress, 1975). (See entry 332. It reach 7,07 feet above sea level. This topographic map, submitted to the Bureau of Topographical Engineers in 1832, shows surveys in strips along the projected railroad routes and identifies property owners. 2 vols. The map and the Business Atlas, as it was then known, required the services of 10 compilers and engravers for nearly two years and cost about $20,000.35 Today the atlas continues to be an indispensable reference tool for the business world and the librarian, for it contains the most complete index to place names in the United States, as well as useful railroad information. It was not until the Boston and Lowell Railroad diverted traffic from the Middlesex Canal that the success of the new mode of transportation was assured. Geography and Map Division; Modelski, Andrew M., 1929- At the end of the 19th century it had further cemented its power here by acquiring two additional properties, the New York & Northern and the New York, Buffalo & West Shore. The several editions of the map, which covers the country from the east coast to the 105th meridian of longitude, are entitled "Rand McNally & Co's New Railroad junction Point and County Map of the Eastern & Middle States Prepared from Latest Government Surveys, and Verified by the Working Time Tables of the Various Railroads. Topographical surveys to locate passes through the Sierra Nevadas and the Coast Range in California and to determine the route that would connect California, Oregon, and Washington were made under the direction of Lt. Robert S. Williamson.27 (See entries 146- 174.). Contains 623 maps chosen from more than 3,000 railroad maps and about 2,000 regional, state, and county maps, and other maps which show \"internal improvements\" of the past century. 19th century French railway map for area around Paris - stock photo London, England - November 29, 2011: A damaged 19th century French railway map for the area around Paris, the capital of France. 17 Clara E. LeGear, The Hotchkiss Map Collection. This is probably the map which George H. Heafford stated was "frequently posted on the out-houses, dead-walls and fences of our large cities. (See entry 86.) Less than a year after their business was destroyed in the 1871 Chicago fire, the company's first two maps appeared in the December 1872 issue of the Guide. Railroad lines are marked in color with the operators to correspond with the list (railroad freight companies are noted next to name). British railroads were first shown on a map in Philippe Vandermaelen's Atlas de L'Europe, published in Brussels in two volumes between 1829 and 1833. Railroad junctions, and all railroads identified by hand-applied colors by water wherever possible the Grande! Act of Congress, approved July 27, 1866 dominant role in the late 19th century - its story briefer... Baltimore and Ohio in 1830, and scale. Official railway Equipment ). 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